博碩士論文 etd-0719111-163212 詳細資訊


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姓名 張惠婷(Hui-Ting Chang) 電子郵件信箱 E-mail 資料不公開
畢業系所 財稅所(Graduate Institute of Taxation)
畢業學位 碩士(Master) 畢業時期 99學年第2學期
論文名稱(中) 以分量迴歸法評估影響生態足跡之政策因子效果
論文名稱(英) Analysis of Policy Factors Effect on Ecological Footprints through Quantile Regression Model
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    摘要(中) 隨著經濟發展與地球居住環境品質惡化,開發中國家也紛紛開始重視環保政策、課徵綠色租稅。生態足跡(ecological footprint)由Wackernagel and Rees (1996)提出,是衡量環境生態永續性發展指標,因此本研究以OECD中30國家1994年至2006年為樣本,以分量迴歸方法探討課徵環境稅能否降低各國的生態足跡,提升地球生態永續性。本文還加入前述各國人均GDP、人均GDP2、都市人口以及各國進出口額佔GDP比例,檢視環境顧志耐曲線(Environmental Kuznets Curve, EKC)理論及不平等生態交換理論(Uneven Ecological Exchange Theory),期望透過分量迴歸捕捉變數間在各分量下與生態足跡的顯著性與關連性。
    研究結果顯示OECD國家課徵環境稅,在中度分量時,對減少資源消費以增加地球永續性有幫助,但在低分量國中,影響力則不顯著。GDP的分量迴歸結果表示,中低分量國家存在經濟發展與維持環境品質間的衝突,但GDP2變數只在低度分量國中顯著,顯示顧志耐曲線理論只存在於在低度分量的國家。經濟發展與環境破壞關係在其他分量國家中並不呈現倒U型關係。一國都市化程度越高,該國整體的資源消費水準會增加,與生態足跡呈現正相關;進口比例與生態足跡的結果,反面印證Jorgenson and Rice(2005)的看法,也肯定不平等生態交換理論;出口比例對該國生態足跡有顯著負向影響,顯示代表已開發國家的OECD國家,出口越多財貨勞務至他國,越會抑制其國內本身對原物料資源的消費。
    摘要(英) With the global economic development, environmental degradation problem had caught the governments’ attention. Many countries had tried to implement green tax into their own tax system. How to measure the effect of the green tax reform had also raised a problem. Therefore, Wackernagel and Rees (1996) introduced a new index, Ecological Footprint, to realize a particular regional resources usage pattern. In order to exactly figure out the relationship between environmental taxes and ecological footprints, we apply the panel data set of 30 OECD countries from 1994 to 2006 and use quantile regression to find the comprehensive relationship. We also add countries’ GDP per capita, GDP per capita square, urbanization and ratio of import/export to GDP to reexamined Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) and Uneven Ecological Exchange Theory.
    The empirical result shows that environmental tax exactly help OECD countries to get the purpose of sustainability if it is in medium-high quantile, but the effect is insignificant in low quantile. It also indicates that it is hard to maintain both economic growth and environmental quality in low and medium quantiles. However, the realationship between GDP square and ecological footprint only significant in low quantiles, which means EKC appears only in low quantiles. Besides, urbanization has positive effect to ecological footprint in all quantiles. The result also support Uneven Ecological Exchange Theory which means export ratio has negative effect to national ecological footprint per capita.
    關鍵字(中)
  • 生態足跡
  • 顧志耐曲線
  • 分量迴歸
  • 關鍵字(英)
  • Quantile regression
  • Ecological footprint
  • Environmental Kuznets Curve
  • 論文目次 摘要 II
    Abstract III
    目錄 IV
    圖目錄 V
    表目錄 V
    第一章 前言 1
    第二章 文獻回顧 6
    第一節 影響環境相關理論 9
    第二節 生態足跡影響因素實證文獻 13
    第三節 環境稅相關理論 20
    第三章 應用模型 23
    第一節 變數選取 23
    第二節 人均生態足跡 25
    第三節 環境稅 27
    第四節 國民生產毛額水準及其平方 28
    第五節 都市化 29
    第六節 出口及進口 30
    第七節 研究方法 31
    第四章 實證結果 34
    第一節 資料說明 34
    第二節 敘述性統計 34
    第三節 單根檢定 36
    第四節 迴歸結果 37
    第五章 結論 41
    參考文獻 43
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    口試委員
  • 何艷宏 - 委員
  • 黃瓊如 - 委員
  • 陳盛通 - 指導教授
  • 口試日期 2011-06-15 繳交日期 2011-07-19

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